Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, the official publication of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria, is published quarterly as a reference source to researchers in the Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Life, Medical and Paramedical Sciences. It is a refereed journal. Statements and opinions herein expressed in the articles and communication are those of the authors and not the Editor(s) and Publisher. The Editor(s) and Publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such materials and do not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any product or service advertised in this publication or any claim made by the manufacturer of such products or services.